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Death of a Orthetrum chrysis duo

Two male Orthetrum chrysis was seen caught in the submerged mosses and drowned. What causes this to happen? My guess is that they were rival males, chasing one another in territory fight and accidentally got caught and entangled by the submerged vegetation. A sad demise for the voracious killer.

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Orchithemis pulcherrima Brauer, 1878 (Red Form, Male & Female)

Family: Libellulidae
Scientific Name: Orchithemis pulcherrima
Common Name: Variable Sentinel

Orchithemis pulcherrima is a common dragonfly which inhabits swampy forests within the nature reserves. It can be found usually under heavily shaded forest reserves in MacRitchie Reservoir, Upper Pierce Reservoir, Upper Seletar Reservoir, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, and many other forested reserves.

This is a narrow winged species. The abdomen is broad and tapers towards the tip. Male has two colour forms. Red form with and without white markings and dark form with pale markings near it’s base. The genitalia on the ventral side of segment 2 of the male is very prominent.

This is the red form without white markings which is very common.

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This male individual has a yellowish thorax which is quite distinct.

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This male has a dark reddish abdomen with white markings at base of abdomen. This form is not normally seen.

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Female with red abdomen is rare. I have seen this female form only three times in Singapore.

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Camacinia gigantea (Brauer, 1867)

Family: Libellulidae
Scientific Name: Camacinia gigantea
Common Name: Sultan

Camacinia gigantea is a large and rare dragonfly which inhabits large ponds, lakes and reservoirs. Although rare, it can be quite common locally especially near edges of forest reserves. I have seen this species at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Chestnut Avenue Forests, Mandai Forests.

This is possibly the largest dragonfly in the Libellulidae family.

The male has a dark red thorax, abdomen, and the red patches also cover about 2/3 of the wings. It is not uncommon to see several males fly rapidly over stagnant ponds or forest pools, often engage in territorial fight. They prefer to hang vertically at their favourite perch and ward off intruders.

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Matured male -1
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Matured male -2
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Maturing male – some yellow patches can still be seen on the wings.
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Young male with brilliant red.
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Immature males are yellowish in colour.
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Dorsal view – note the pattern on the male’s wings.

Female is slightly stouter and larger than the male. The wings and body are pale brownish in colour. Aged female can appear to be dark red as in males. Female is rarer and often not sighted. They appear only when mating and ovipositing.

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At a glance, this female appear to look like a male. However, the abdomen is thicker and the female anal appendages is clearly seen.
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Another female. Note the slightly yellowish on the red patches wings.
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Aged female with brownish thorax, and reddish wings.

I used to see this species at a drainage concrete structure at the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. However, the sighting of this species is less common now after the vegetation was cleared from the water-logged structure.

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Ceriagrion chaoi Schmidt, 1964

Family: Coenagrionidae
Scientific Name: Ceriagrion chaoi
Common Name: Fiery Coraltail

Ceriagrion chaoi is a rare damselfly species that has been found only at very few places in Singapore, such as Bishan Park, and MacRitchie Reservoir.

In June 2013, I saw this species at an unrecorded place at the Western side of the Central Catchment Nature Reserve. There are at least a pair of this damselfly ovipositing on the submerged water plants at the reservoir. It seems that this species only appear late in the morning and males are more likely to be seen, whilst females are less common.

The male has a striking red abdomen and an olive green thorax. The eyes and mouth are red. Females are less striking with dull olive green thorax.

Male
Male
An immatured male
A teneral male
Female ovipositing on submerged vegetation with the male on guard
Female ovipositing on submerged vegetation with the male on guard
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Libellago aurantiaca Selys, 1859

Family: Chlorocyphidae (Jewels)
Scientific Name: Libellago aurantiaca
Common Name: Fiery Gem

This brilliantly coloured damselfly is unmistakeable. In the book “Dragonflies of Singapore”, it mentioned this is an uncommon species but I would think it is a relatively rare species, compared to Libellago lineata¬† and Libellago hyalina. It can only be found at the Central Catchment Nature Reserve. The habitat for this species is clear, flowing forest streams with sandy bottom. Male is often seen perching on twig, water plants or floating leaves flowing down the streams. So far, I have not seen female of this species yet.

Male perching on floating plant on fast flowing stream in the swamp forest
Resting on water plant
Resting on water plant
perching on twig above forest stream
perching on twig above forest stream
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Lyriothemis cleis, Brauer, 1868 (Female)

Family: Libellulidae
Scientific Name: Lyriothemis cleis
Common Name: Bombardier

Female Lyriothemis cleis is variegated brown in colour and very rare. So far, I have only spotted once at MacRitchie Reservoir.

Female spotted at MacRitchie Reservoir in year 2011
It has clear wings
Same Female
The abdomen is segmented with clear defined dark lines.
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Lyriothemis cleis, Brauer, 1868 (Male)

Family: Libellulidae
Scientific Name: Lyriothemis cleis
Common Name: Bombardier

Lyriothemis cleis was first discovered by A.R. Wallace from Singapore  in 1854. It is a rare dragonfly and found at Bukit Timah Nature Reserves and MacRitchie Reservoir.

According to some texts, this species lives in pristine dipterocarp forests and the larvae lives in water-filled cavities in plants.

The abdomen is dull red in colour with well-defined segments. The eyes are metallic dark brown and clypeus is milky white.

I have spotted this dragonfly a couple of times in year 2011 at the exact same spot along a forest trail at MacRitchie Reservoir.

Male – dorsal view
Male
Male – lateral view
Male
Male (notice metallic blue frons, milky white clypeus.and protruding secondary genitalia).
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Nannophya pygmaea Rambur, 1842

Family: Libellulidae
Scientific Name: Nannophya pygmaea
Common Name: Scarlet Pygmy

The smallest true dragonfly in Singapore and one of the smallest in the World, the scarlet pygmy has a total body length of merely 16-17mm. It is quite a localised species and commonly found at open grassy and swampy areas as well as inlets and water edges of reservoirs. So far, I have encountered this species at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, MacRitchie Reservoir Nature Reserve, and at the vicinity of Chestnut Ave forests.

The male has a totally red thorax and abdomen. The wing base is tinted with amber. Juvenile male is yellowish brown in colour. Female is darker and the abdomen has a transverse bands of dark brown and white.

Both male and female are very active during noon time. It is a usual sight of seeing this species adopt an obelisk posture during mid-day whilst the sun is right above. I guess this is to minimise exposing their body to intense heat during the day.

This is indeed a cute and lovely dragonfly species – one of my favourites.

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Matured male
Immatured male
Immature male
Immature male
Immature male
Female
Female
Female
Female

Trithemis aurora (Burmeister, 1839)

Family: Libellulidae
Scientific Name: Trithemis aurora
Common Name: Crimson Dropwing

Trithemis aurora is a small but beautiful dragonfly commonly found in ponds, streams, edges of the reservoirs, and weedy drains. They can be found at Singapore Botanic Garden, Dairy Farm Nature Parks, MacRitchie Reservoir, and many other places in Singapore.

The eyes, thorax and abdomen are brilliant glowing red, wing veins are red, and base of hind wings are tinted dark red in male, dark brown in female.

Immature male is brownish in color, similar to female, but without any black markings at the side of the abdomen.

This is a sun loving species. Male and female like to bask under hot sun in an obelisk position.

Male
Male
Immature Male
Immature Male
Female
Female
Older female

Orthetrum chrysis (Selys, 1891)

Family: Libellulidae
Scientific Name: Orthetrum chrysis
Common Name: Spine-tufted Skimmer

This dragonfly is very common in ponds, drains, in both nature reserves, parks and other disturbed wastelands.

The male’s eyes are dark grey, thorax is dark brown, abdomen is red. Male has a distinct curved tuft of setae at Segment two of the abdomen. Female is reddish brown with obscure markings.

Male
Mating pair
Mating pair
Another mating pair where male hold on tightly on the female as though the female is reluctant to mate
A male with his catch